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Cold Exposure

The Frozen Neurotransmitter: How Cold Exposure Triggers Dopamine

Introduction

Picture a crisp winter morning, the air biting with cold as you step outside. Your breath forms clouds in front of you, and your skin tingles from the chill. In that moment, you may feel a rush of energy, a surge of exhilaration that seems to defy the icy temperatures. What’s happening inside your body during this encounter with the cold? Why does it feel so invigorating?

Cold exposure, the practice of subjecting your body to cold temperatures, has been gaining popularity in recent years for its potential health and wellness benefits. While it may seem counterintuitive to willingly expose oneself to the cold, this age-old practice has profound effects on our physiology and psychology. One of the most fascinating aspects of cold dipping is its ability to trigger the release of dopamine, a neurotransmitter commonly associated with pleasure, reward, and motivation.

In this exploration, we will dive deep into the science of dopamine, dissect the physiological responses to cold dipping, and uncover the intricate connection between the two. We will also discuss the evolutionary rationale behind our bodies’ response to the cold and examine the potential implications for our mental and physical well-being.

Whether you’re curious about the science behind cold dipping, interested in harnessing its potential benefits, or simply intrigued by the idea of unlocking hidden reserves of energy and happiness through the cold, this blog will provide you with valuable insights and practical guidance. So, bundle up, dear reader, as we embark on a journey through the frosty landscapes of neuroscience and wellness to uncover the secrets of “The Frozen Neurotransmitter: How Cold Exposure Triggers Dopamine.”

Understanding Dopamine

Before we delve into the intriguing relationship between cold plunging and dopamine, it’s essential to grasp the fundamentals of dopamine itself. Often referred to as the “feel-good” neurotransmitter, dopamine plays a pivotal role in shaping our emotions, behaviours, and overall well-being.

What is Dopamine?

Dopamine is a chemical messenger, or neurotransmitter, that plays a crucial role in the communication between nerve cells in the brain. It belongs to a class of neurotransmitters known as catecholamines, and it’s produced in several areas of the brain, including the substantia nigra and the ventral tegmental area.

The Role of Dopamine in the Brain

Dopamine has a diverse set of functions, making it one of the most multifaceted neurotransmitters in the brain. Here are some key roles it plays:

Reward and Pleasure: Perhaps the most well-known role of dopamine is in the brain’s reward system. When you experience something pleasurable or rewarding, such as enjoying a delicious meal or receiving a compliment, your brain releases dopamine. This surge of dopamine creates a sensation of pleasure and reinforces the behaviour that led to it. It’s the brain’s way of saying, “That felt good; let’s do it again!”

Motivation and Goal-Setting: Dopamine is closely associated with motivation and goal-directed behaviour. It provides the drive to pursue goals and achieve rewards. When dopamine levels are optimal, you’re more likely to feel energised and focused on tasks.

Mood Regulation: Dopamine plays a crucial role in mood regulation. Imbalances in dopamine levels are associated with various mood disorders, including depression and schizophrenia. Maintaining a stable dopamine system is vital for emotional well-being.

Cognition and Learning: Dopamine is involved in cognitive processes such as attention, memory, and learning. It helps us process and integrate information, making it an essential component of our ability to adapt to new situations and acquire knowledge.

Connection Between Dopamine and Mood Regulation

Dopamine’s influence on mood regulation is particularly significant. When dopamine levels are in balance, it contributes to feelings of happiness and contentment. However, disruptions in the dopamine system can lead to mood disorders, including depression.

In essence, dopamine acts as a messenger that relays signals between brain cells. It’s involved in transmitting feelings of pleasure, satisfaction, and motivation, which are essential for a fulfilling life. Understanding the role of dopamine in our brain sets the stage for comprehending how cold exposure can impact this vital neurotransmitter.

The Science of Cold Exposure

Cold exposure, as the name suggests, involves subjecting the body to cold temperatures deliberately. While it might seem uncomfortable or even counterintuitive, this practice has a profound impact on the human body’s physiology. To understand how cold plunging triggers dopamine release, it’s crucial to grasp the scientific mechanisms at play during this chilling experience.

How Does Cold Exposure Affect the Body?

When you expose your body to cold temperatures, whether by taking a cold shower, immersing yourself in an ice bath, or simply being in a chilly environment, several physiological changes occur. Here’s what happens when you embrace the cold:

Vasoconstriction: The blood vessels near the skin’s surface constrict (narrow), reducing blood flow to the extremities. This is your body’s way of conserving heat and maintaining core temperature.

Shivering: When your body senses a drop in temperature, it may initiate shivering—a rapid contraction and relaxation of muscles—to generate heat. Shivering is an automatic response to cold and helps raise your body temperature.

Metabolic Boost: Cold exposure can increase your metabolic rate. Your body burns more energy (calories) to generate heat, which is why some people use cold dipping as a weight loss strategy.

Hormonal Changes: Cold exposure stimulates the release of various hormones, including adrenaline and noradrenaline, which are part of the body’s “fight or flight” response. These hormones can increase alertness and energy levels.

Activation of Brown Fat: Humans have two types of fat tissue: white fat and brown fat. Cold dipping can activate brown fat, which burns calories to generate heat. This process is thought to be related to the release of dopamine.

Release of Neurotransmitters in Response to Cold

One of the most fascinating aspects of cold exposure is its impact on neurotransmitters, including dopamine. Here’s how the process unfolds:

Dopamine Release: Research suggests that cold plunging can trigger the release of dopamine in the brain. This release of dopamine is thought to be associated with the pleasurable and energising sensations some people experience when exposed to cold.

Endorphin Release: Cold exposure also stimulates the release of endorphins, another group of feel-good neurotransmitters. Endorphins can create a sense of euphoria and reduce pain perception.

Serotonin Modulation: Cold dipping may have an impact on serotonin, a neurotransmitter linked to mood regulation. Some studies suggest that cold plunges can increase serotonin levels, potentially contributing to an improved mood.

The Dopamine-Cold Connection

Now that we’ve explored the basics of dopamine and the science behind cold exposure, it’s time to uncover the intricate connection between the two. How does subjecting your body to cold temperatures lead to the release of dopamine, and what are the mechanisms that underpin this fascinating phenomenon?

Research Findings on Dopamine Release During Cold Exposure

Scientists have been investigating the relationship between cold plunging and dopamine release for some time, and their findings are shedding light on this intriguing connection. Here’s what research has revealed:

Dopamine Release in Response to Cold: Studies have shown that exposure to cold temperatures can indeed lead to the release of dopamine in the brain. This release is not uniform and can vary from person to person. Hence suggesting individual differences in how we respond to the cold.

Intensity Matters: The degree of dopamine release appears to be influenced by the intensity and duration of cold dipping. Longer or more intense cold exposure sessions are more likely to result in a substantial release of dopamine.

Individual Variation: People have different thresholds for ice baths, which can influence the extent of dopamine release. Some individuals may experience a more robust release of dopamine, leading to enhanced mood and motivation, while others may not respond as strongly.

Explanation of the Physiological Processes Involved

To understand why cold exposure triggers dopamine release, we need to look at the physiological processes at play:

Adrenaline and Noradrenaline: When you expose yourself to cold, your body’s “fight or flight” response is activated. This leads to the release of adrenaline and noradrenaline, which prepare your body for action. These hormones can increase alertness and energy levels.

Dopaminergic Pathways: The release of adrenaline and noradrenaline can stimulate the brain’s dopaminergic pathways, which are responsible for dopamine transmission. This stimulation can result in the release of dopamine and its subsequent effects on mood and motivation.

Brown Fat Activation: As mentioned earlier, cold dipping can activate brown fat, which burns calories to generate heat. This process may also be linked to the release of dopamine. Because brown fat activation is thought to be related to feelings of energy and well-being.

Factors Influencing the Extent of Dopamine Release

Several factors can influence the extent of dopamine release during cold exposure:

Tolerance to Cold: Individuals who regularly expose themselves to cold may develop a higher tolerance and, consequently, experience more significant dopamine release over time.

Body Composition: The amount of brown fat in the body can vary among individuals. Those with higher brown fat levels may experience a more pronounced release of dopamine during cold dipping.

Mindset and Expectation: Your mindset and expectation before cold plunging can influence the psychological response to the experience. Positive anticipation and a sense of adventure may enhance the release of dopamine.

Evolutionary Perspective

As we explore the connection between cold exposure and dopamine release, it’s intriguing to consider why our bodies have evolved to respond to cold in this particular manner. Evolutionary biology provides us with valuable insights into the origins of this fascinating adaptation and the potential advantages it offers.

Why Would the Body Release Dopamine in Response to Cold?

Survival in Harsh Environments: Throughout human history, our ancestors encountered cold climates and harsh environments. The ability to adapt to cold conditions would have been a valuable survival trait. Dopamine release during cold dipping could have served as a built-in reward system, encouraging individuals to seek warmth and shelter, thus increasing their chances of survival.

Energy Conservation: During periods of cold exposure, the body’s increased metabolic rate helps generate heat. This boost in energy expenditure may have been balanced by the release of dopamine, which encouraged individuals to engage in activities necessary for survival, such as hunting for food or building shelter.

Enhanced Focus and Alertness: Cold exposure stimulates the release of adrenaline and noradrenaline, which increase alertness and focus. This heightened state of awareness may have helped individuals detect and respond to potential threats in cold environments, such as predators or other dangers.

Mood Elevation: Dopamine is known to enhance mood and motivation. In challenging conditions, a positive mood and increased motivation could have been advantageous for problem-solving, cooperation within social groups, and overall well-being.

Evolutionary Advantages of This Response

The connection between cold dipping and dopamine release reflects a finely tuned adaptation that has persisted through generations. Some of the potential evolutionary advantages of this response include:

Increased Survival: Dopamine’s role in encouraging individuals to seek warmth and engage in energy-intensive activities may have contributed to increased survival rates in cold climates.

Resource Management: Balancing the energy spent on heat production with the motivation to seek warmth and food would have been crucial for efficient resource management.

Enhanced Cognitive Abilities: The heightened state of alertness and focus induced by cold exposure may have improved problem-solving and decision-making skills, which were essential for survival.

Social Cohesion: A positive mood and increased motivation could have fostered stronger social bonds within groups, enhancing cooperation and collective survival.

Comparisons with Other Animals’ Cold Adaptations

It’s worth noting that humans are not the only species to exhibit adaptations to cold environments. Many animals, such as polar bears and penguins, have evolved specialised mechanisms to thrive in extreme cold. Some of these adaptations involve unique physiological responses, including changes in blood flow and insulation.

While the specifics of cold adaptations vary among species, the underlying principles of conserving energy, maintaining body temperature, and enhancing survival are common themes. Studying these adaptations in animals can provide valuable insights into the evolutionary significance of cold plunging and its impact on dopamine release in humans.

Health and Well-being Implications

Now that we’ve unravelled the science behind cold exposure and its intriguing connection to dopamine. It’s time to explore the practical implications of this phenomenon on our health and overall well-being. From mood enhancement to potential applications in managing mood disorders, the effects of cold dipping are far-reaching.

Effects of Cold-Induced Dopamine Release on Mood

One of the most immediate and noticeable effects of cold exposure is the enhancement of mood. When dopamine is released in response to cold, it can create a sense of euphoria and well-being. Many people report feeling more alert, energised, and even happier after cold dipping.

This mood-enhancing effect can be particularly valuable in today’s fast-paced and often stressful world. Cold exposure offers a natural and drug-free way to boost mood and combat feelings of fatigue and low energy. It can be a refreshing antidote to the demands of daily life.

Potential Applications in Managing Mood Disorders

The mood-enhancing properties of cold dipping have sparked interest in potential therapeutic applications for mood disorders like depression and anxiety. While cold exposure should not replace established treatments, it may complement existing therapies.

Depression: Research has suggested that cold dipping may have an antidepressant effect. The release of dopamine and other neurotransmitters during cold exposure can improve mood and motivation, which are often diminished in depression.

Anxiety: Cold exposure’s ability to increase alertness and focus can be beneficial for individuals with anxiety. It may help reduce feelings of restlessness and promote a sense of calm.

Stress Reduction: Cold plunging may also aid in stress reduction by triggering the body’s relaxation response once you warm up after exposure. This can lead to decreased cortisol levels (the stress hormone) and a sense of tranquillity.

Warnings and Precautions for Cold Exposure Therapy

While cold exposure has shown promise as a mood-enhancing and potentially therapeutic practice, it’s essential to approach it with caution:

Individual Variation: People respond differently to cold plunging, so what works for one person may not work for another. Start slowly and pay attention to your body’s signals.

Health Considerations: If you have underlying medical conditions, consult a healthcare professional before attempting cold dipping. Individuals with cardiovascular issues, Raynaud’s disease, or other medical concerns may need to avoid or modify cold exposure practices.

Gradual Progression: If you’re new to cold dipping, begin with milder methods such as cold showers before progressing to more intense forms like ice baths. Gradual adaptation allows your body to acclimate safely.

Safety Precautions: Always ensure you are in a safe environment when practicing cold exposure. Have warm clothing, blankets, or a heated space readily available to warm up after exposure.

Listen to Your Body: Pay close attention to your body’s signals during cold dips. If you experience extreme discomfort, numbness, or any adverse reactions, stop immediately and warm up.

Cold Exposure Techniques

Now that we’ve uncovered the science and potential benefits of cold dipping, it’s time to explore the practical aspects. From the invigorating cold shower to the more immersive ice bath, there are various techniques to choose from. Let’s take a closer look at some popular cold exposure methods and how you can safely embrace them.

Overview of Popular Cold Exposure Methods

Cold Showers: Cold showers are an accessible and gentle way to start your cold dipping journey. Begin by gradually reducing the water temperature at the end of your regular shower. Over time, increase the duration of the cold portion of your shower. This method is excellent for beginners.

Ice Baths: Ice baths involve immersing your body in a tub filled with cold water and ice. This technique offers a more intense cold dipping experience and can be invigorating when practised safely. Start with shorter durations and gradually increase them as your body adapts. Our Cold Pods are a great place to start.

Cold Water Swimming: If you have access to a cold body of water, such as a lake or river, cold water swimming can be a refreshing and natural way to experience cold exposure. Always exercise caution, wear appropriate swimwear, and ensure you are a confident swimmer before attempting this method.

Cryotherapy: Cryotherapy involves brief exposure to extremely cold air, typically in a specialised chamber. While this method is gaining popularity, it’s essential to do it under the guidance of trained professionals who can ensure your safety.

How to Safely Incorporate Cold Exposure into Your Routine

Start Slowly: If you’re new to cold exposure, begin with milder methods like cold showers. Gradually extend the duration and intensity as your body adapts. Listen to your body’s signals and avoid pushing yourself too hard too soon.

Maintain Awareness: Pay close attention to how your body responds during cold dips. Shivering is a natural response, but excessive shivering can indicate that it’s time to warm up. Numbness or discomfort may also be signs to end the exposure.

Warm-Up Afterwards: After cold plunging, it’s crucial to warm up gradually. Wrap yourself in warm clothing, use blankets, or enjoy a warm beverage. This will help prevent a sudden drop in body temperature and promote a feeling of comfort.

Stay Hydrated and Nourished: Cold exposure can increase energy expenditure and may leave you feeling hungry or thirsty. Ensure you are adequately hydrated and have a nutritious snack or meal after your ice bath session.

Consult a Professional: If you have any underlying medical conditions or concerns, consult a healthcare professional before beginning a cold exposure regimen. They can provide guidance tailored to your specific needs.

Mindset Matters: Your mindset plays a significant role in your cold dipping experience. Approach it with a positive attitude and a sense of adventure. Embrace the sensations and focus on the potential benefits for your well-being.

Beyond Dopamine: Other Benefits of Cold Exposure

While the release of dopamine during cold exposure is undoubtedly fascinating, the advantages of this practice extend far beyond mood enhancement. Cold dipping has been associated with a range of physiological and psychological benefits that contribute to overall vitality and well-being. Let’s explore some of these additional advantages:

Improved Immune Function:

Cold exposure has been shown to stimulate the production of white blood cells, which play a crucial role in the immune system’s ability to fight off infections. Regular exposure to cold temperatures may enhance your body’s natural defences against illnesses.

Inflammation Reduction:

Chronic inflammation is linked to various health issues, including cardiovascular disease and autoimmune disorders. Cold dipping can help reduce inflammation by activating anti-inflammatory pathways in the body. This anti-inflammatory effect can potentially contribute to better long-term health.

Enhanced Resilience and Mental Toughness:

Facing the discomfort of cold-water exposure can strengthen your mental resilience. It requires discipline and mental fortitude to endure the initial shock of cold water or air. Over time, this can translate into increased mental toughness, allowing you to better handle challenges in other areas of life.

Increased Metabolic Rate:

Cold dipping can boost your metabolic rate, which means your body burns more calories to generate heat. While this effect is not a magic weight loss solution, it can contribute to a more efficient metabolism when combined with a healthy diet and exercise.

Stress Reduction and Improved Sleep:

The calming effect of cold-water exposure, once you warm up after exposure, can help reduce stress and improve sleep quality. Many practitioners report feeling more relaxed and experiencing deeper, more restful sleep after cold exposure sessions.

Enhanced Circulation and Recovery:

Cold dipping can improve circulation, leading to better oxygen and nutrient delivery to muscles and tissues. This improved blood flow can aid in post-workout recovery and may reduce muscle soreness.

Increased Energy and Alertness:

Cold exposure stimulates the release of adrenaline and noradrenaline, increasing alertness and energy levels. This boost in energy can help you feel more awake and focused, making it a valuable tool for productivity and mental clarity.

Promotes Mind-Body Connection:

Practising cold water exposure requires mindfulness and the ability to stay present in the moment. This heightened awareness of your body’s sensations can promote a deeper mind-body connection, fostering a sense of harmony and balance.

It’s important to note that while these potential benefits are promising, individual responses to cold dipping can vary. What’s most crucial is finding a cold dipping routine that works for you and incorporating it safely and gradually into your lifestyle.

Potential Risks and Precautions

While cold plunging offers a range of benefits, it’s essential to acknowledge that it may not be suitable for everyone. There are potential risks associated with this practice. Here, we’ll explore some of the risks and precautions to consider before embarking on your cold exposure journey:

Individual Variability:

People have different tolerances to cold, and what works well for one person may not be suitable for another. Some individuals may be more sensitive to cold temperatures, while others may adapt quickly. Listen to your body and adjust your cold exposure practices accordingly.

Underlying Medical Conditions:

If you have underlying medical conditions, particularly cardiovascular issues or Raynaud’s disease, consult with a healthcare professional before attempting cold exposure. Cold dipping can place additional stress on the heart and may not be safe for those with certain health conditions.

Hypothermia and Frostbite:

Prolonged exposure to extreme cold can lead to hypothermia or frostbite, which can be serious medical conditions. Always monitor your body’s response to cold. If you experience symptoms such as extreme shivering, numbness, confusion, or pale skin, seek warmth and medical attention immediately.

Rapid Temperature Changes:

Sudden transitions between extreme temperatures, such as going from a hot sauna to cold water, can put a significant strain on the cardiovascular system. Gradual temperature changes are safer and less likely to result in shock to the body.

Cold Water Immersion:

Immersing yourself in very cold water, whether in natural bodies of water or ice baths, carries a higher risk. Cold water immersion can shock the system and may lead to involuntary gasping and drowning. Always exercise extreme caution and have a safety plan in place.

Overexertion:

While cold dipping can increase metabolic rate and calorie burn, it’s essential to avoid overexerting yourself. Strenuous physical activity during or immediately after cold exposure may strain the heart and lead to adverse effects.

Pregnancy and Children:

Pregnant individuals and children may be more vulnerable to the effects of cold dipping. It’s advisable for pregnant individuals to avoid intense cold exposure, and children should only engage in cold dips under close adult supervision.

Mental Health Considerations:

If you have a history of mental health issues or challenges, consult with a mental health professional before attempting cold dipping. The practice can be emotionally intense, and it’s essential to ensure it aligns with your mental well-being.

Slow Adaptation:

Rushing into intense cold exposure practices without allowing your body to adapt gradually can increase the risk of adverse reactions. Start slowly, and build up your tolerance over time to minimise risks.

Safety Precautions:

Always have safety precautions in place when practising cold exposure. This includes having warm clothing, blankets, or a heated space readily available to warm up after exposure. If you’re attempting cold water immersion, ensure you have a safety buddy or spotter present.

In summary, while cold dipping can offer a range of benefits, it should be approached with caution and mindfulness. Consult with a healthcare professional if you have any health concerns that may affect you safely practicing cold exposure. By taking the necessary precautions and listening to your body, you can enjoy the invigorating and potentially transformative effects of cold exposure while minimising potential risks.

Conclusion

In our exploration of “The Frozen Neurotransmitter: How Cold Exposure Triggers Dopamine,” we’ve uncovered the science behind the release of dopamine during cold exposure and delved into the potential benefits and practical aspects of this age-old practice.

From the mood-enhancing effects of cold-induced dopamine release to the potential therapeutic applications in managing mood disorders, we’ve discovered that cold exposure offers a unique avenue for enhancing mental and physical well-being.

This age-old practice reminds us of the profound connection between our modern lives and the evolutionary forces that have shaped our bodies and minds.

However, it’s essential to approach cold dipping with caution and respect for its potential risks. Underlying medical conditions and the need for gradual adaptation are important considerations when embarking on your cold dipping journey.

As you venture into the invigorating world of cold exposure, remember that it’s a personal exploration. What works best for you may differ from others, and that’s perfectly fine. The key is to find a cold dipping routine that aligns with your goals, preferences, and individual needs.

Take your first step into the chilly waters of cold exposure. Remember that you’re embarking on a journey that connects you with generations of humans. Including those who have found strength and vitality in the cold. Embrace the experience, stay safe, and relish the transformative potential that comes with “The Frozen Neurotransmitter.”

 

Additional Resources

As we conclude our exploration of “The Frozen Neurotransmitter: How Cold Exposure Triggers Dopamine”, we’d like to provide you with a list of additional resources. These resources can serve as valuable references and tools for those interested in learning more about cold exposure, ice baths, and related topics:

Online Communities and Forums

The Cold Pod Community: Website

Cold Exposure and Ice Bath Resources

The Cold Pod: Blog

Cold Exposure Therapy: Benefits, Risks, and How to Do It Safely: Blog

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India£38.23 £52.74 £66.42 £81.31 £93.43
Indonesia£42.18 £57.90 £72.51 £73.60 £109.34
Iraq£55.60 £76.71 £100.33 £126.25 £149.25
Ireland£22.59 £26.07 £27.63 £29.18 £32.02
Israel£38.23 £52.74 £66.42 £81.31 £93.43
Italy£23.55 £27.25 £28.81 £30.35 £33.56
Ivory Coast£55.60 £76.71 £100.33 £126.25 £149.25
Jamaica£57.93 £103.31 £132.93 £165.30 £192.49
Japan£42.18 £57.90 £72.51 £73.60 £109.34
Jordan£38.23 £52.74 £66.42 £81.31 £93.43
Kazakhstan£55.60 £76.71 £100.33 £126.25 £149.25
Kenya£55.60 £76.71 £100.33 £126.25 £149.25
Korea, South£42.18 £57.90 £72.51 £73.60 £109.34
Kuwait£38.23 £52.74 £66.42 £81.31 £93.43
Kyrgyzstan£55.60 £76.71 £100.33 £126.25 £149.25
Laos£42.18 £57.90 £72.51 £73.60 £109.34
Latvia£23.55 £28.34 £30.98 £33.62 £37.23
Lebanon£38.23 £52.74 £66.42 £81.31 £93.43
Lesotho£55.60 £76.71 £100.33 £126.25 £149.25
Liberia£55.60 £76.71 £100.33 £126.25 £149.25
Libya£38.23 £52.74 £66.42 £81.31 £93.43
Liechtenstein£40.42 £49.06 £53.73 £58.38 £65.47
Lithuania£23.55 £28.34 £30.98 £33.62 £37.23
Luxembourg£22.58 £26.07 £27.63 £29.18 £32.02
Macao£42.18 £57.90 £72.51 £73.60 £109.34
Madagascar£55.60 £76.71 £100.33 £126.25 £149.25
Malawi£55.60 £76.71 £100.33 £126.25 £149.25
Malaysia£42.18 £57.90 £72.51 £73.60 £109.34
Maldives£55.60 £76.71 £100.33 £126.25 £149.25
Mali£55.60 £76.71 £100.33 £126.25 £149.25
Malta£47.19 £54.88 £59.56 £64.22 £71.74
Marshall Islands£55.60 £76.71 £100.33 £126.25 £149.25
Martinique£57.93 £103.31 £132.93 £165.30 £192.49
Mauritania£55.60 £76.71 £100.33 £126.25 £149.25
Mauritius£55.60 £76.71 £100.33 £126.25 £149.25
Mexico£57.93 £103.31 £132.93 £165.30 £192.49
Micronesia£55.60 £76.71 £100.33 £126.25 £149.25
Moldova£47.19 £54.88 £59.56 £64.22 £71.74
Monaco£22.58 £26.07 £27.63 £29.18 £32.02
Mongolia£55.60 £76.71 £100.33 £126.25 £149.25
Montenegro£47.19 £54.88 £59.56 £64.22 £71.74
Montserrat£57.93 £103.31 £132.93 £165.30 £192.49
Morocco£38.23 £52.74 £66.42 £81.31 £93.43
Mozambique£55.60 £76.71 £100.33 £126.25 £149.25
Namibia£55.60 £76.71 £100.33 £126.25 £149.25
Nepal£38.23 £52.74 £66.42 £81.31 £93.43
Netherlands£22.58 £26.07 £27.63 £29.18 £32.02
New Caledonia£55.60 £76.71 £100.33 £126.25 £149.25
New Zealand£77.82 £107.91 £144.35 £185.25 £229.54
Nicaragua£57.93 £103.31 £132.93 £165.30 £192.49
Niger£55.60 £76.71 £100.33 £126.25 £149.25
Nigeria£55.60 £76.71 £100.33 £126.25 £149.25
North Macedonia£47.19 £54.88 £59.56 £64.22 £71.74
Norway£40.42 £49.06 £53.73 £58.38 £65.47
Oman£38.23 £52.74 £66.42 £81.31 £93.43
Pakistan£38.23 £52.74 £66.42 £81.31 £93.43
Palau£55.60 £76.71 £100.33 £126.25 £149.25
Palestine Authority£38.23 £52.74 £66.42 £81.31 £93.43
Panama£57.93 £103.31 £132.93 £165.30 £192.49
Papua- New Guinea£55.60 £76.71 £100.33 £126.25 £149.25
Paraguay£57.93 £103.31 £132.93 £165.30 £192.49
Peru£57.93 £103.31 £132.93 £165.30 £192.49
Philippines£42.18 £57.90 £72.51 £73.60 £109.34
Poland£23.55 £28.34 £30.98 £33.62 £37.23
Portugal£23.55 £27.25 £28.81 £30.35 £33.56
Puerto Rico£57.93 £103.31 £132.93 £165.30 £192.49
Qatar£38.23 £52.74 £66.42 £81.31 £93.43
Reunion Island£55.60 £76.71 £100.33 £126.25 £149.25
Romania£23.55 £28.34 £30.98 £33.62 £37.23
Rwanda£55.60 £76.71 £100.33 £126.25 £149.25
Saipan£55.60 £76.71 £100.33 £126.25 £149.25
Samoa, West£55.60 £76.71 £100.33 £126.25 £149.25
San Marino£23.55 £27.25 £28.81 £30.35 £33.56
Saudi Arabia£38.23 £52.74 £66.42 £81.31 £93.43
Senegal£55.60 £76.71 £100.33 £126.25 £149.25
Serbia£47.19 £54.88 £59.56 £64.22 £71.74
Seychelles£55.60 £76.71 £100.33 £126.25 £149.25
Singapore£35.00 £46.93 £57.90 £71.05 £82.36
Slovak Republic£23.55 £28.34 £30.98 £33.62 £37.23
Slovenia£23.55 £28.34 £30.98 £33.62 £37.23
South Africa£57.93 £103.31 £132.93 £165.30 £192.49
Spain£23.55 £27.25 £28.81 £30.35 £33.56
Sri Lanka£38.23 £52.74 £66.42 £81.31 £93.43
St. Kitts & Nevis£57.93 £103.31 £132.93 £165.30 £192.49
St. Lucia£57.93 £103.31 £132.93 £165.30 £192.49
St. Maarten (NL)£57.93 £103.31 £132.93 £165.30 £192.49
St. Martin (FR)£57.93 £103.31 £132.93 £165.30 £192.49
St. Vincent£57.93 £103.31 £132.93 £165.30 £192.49
Suriname£57.93 £103.31 £132.93 £165.30 £192.49
Swaziland£55.60 £76.71 £100.33 £126.25 £149.25
Sweden£23.55 £27.25 £28.81 £30.35 £33.56
Switzerland£40.42 £49.06 £53.73 £58.38 £65.47
Taiwan£42.18 £57.90 £72.51 £73.60 £109.34
Tanzania£55.60 £76.71 £100.33 £126.25 £149.25
Thailand£42.18 £57.90 £72.51 £73.60 £109.34
Togo£55.60 £76.71 £100.33 £126.25 £149.25
Tonga£55.60 £76.71 £100.33 £126.25 £149.25
Trinidad & Tobago£57.93 £103.31 £132.93 £165.30 £192.49
Tunisia£38.23 £52.74 £66.42 £81.31 £93.43
Turkey£47.19 £54.88 £59.56 £64.22 £71.74
Turks & Caicos Islands£57.93 £103.31 £132.93 £165.30 £192.49
Uganda£55.60 £76.71 £100.33 £126.25 £149.25
United Arab Emirates£38.23 £52.74 £66.42 £81.31 £93.43
United States of America£30.10 £45.00 £68.42 £93.47 £118.10
Uruguay£57.93 £103.31 £132.93 £165.30 £192.49
Uzbekistan£55.60 £76.71 £100.33 £126.25 £149.25
Vanuatu£55.60 £76.71 £100.33 £126.25 £149.25
Vatican City£23.55 £27.25 £28.81 £30.35 £33.56
Venezuela£57.93 £103.31 £132.93 £165.30 £192.49
Vietnam£42.18 £57.90 £72.51 £73.60 £109.34
Virgin Islands (GB)£57.93 £103.31 £132.93 £165.30 £192.49
Virgin Islands (USA)£57.93 £103.31 £132.93 £165.30 £192.49
Wallis & Futuna£55.60 £76.71 £100.33 £126.25 £149.25
Zambia£55.60 £76.71 £100.33 £126.25 £149.25
Zimbabwe£55.60 £76.71 £100.33 £126.25 £149.25